Chinese martial arts, also referred to by the Mandarin Chinese term wushu and popularly as kung fu, are a number of fighting styles that have developed over the centuries in China. These fighting styles are often classified according to common traits, identified as “families” , “sects” or “schools” of martial arts. Examples of such traits include physical exercises involving animal mimicry, or training methods inspired by Chinese philosophies, religions and legends. Styles which focus on qi manipulation are labeled as internal , while others concentrate on improving muscle and cardiovascular fitness and are labeled external . Geographical association, as in northern and southern, is another popular method of categorization.